Aryabhatta-PUC History Notes - MahitiLok

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Aryabhatta-PUC History Notes

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Aryabhatta (476 AD – 550AD)

Aryabhatta is one of the early pioneers in astronomy & mathematics. He is considered as an all-time great Indian mathematician. He was born in 476AD in Pataliputra in Bihar. He was patronized by king Chnadra Gupta II Vikramaditya of the Gupta Dynasty.

Aryabhatta is a kind of revolution in the field of Mathematics. Many of his concepts form the basis of modern Mathematics. He invented the concept of Zero, upon which today’s number system stands. The calculation of the value of “PI” was his other invention. He made considerable research on celestial sphere, shape & motion of the earth. Cause of day & night, etc, He also provided a heliocentric model of the universe much more advanced than the geocentric model of Ptolemy that had taken hold in Europe.

Aryabhatta is the author of several works on Mathematics & Astronomy. His major work Aryabhatiya a book of Mathematics & Astronomy, referred to in Indian Mathematical literature has survived to modern times. The Mathematical part of Aryabhatiya covers Arithmetic, Algebra, Trignometry, Spherical Trignometry & Fractions. The Arya-Siddhanta is a work on Astronomy. It mentions Astronomical instruments like the Gnomon, a shadow instrument, angle-measuring devices, a cylindrical stick, water clocks, etc. He also wrote Surya Siddhanta & Dasagitika.

Accounts of Foreign Travelers who visited Vijayanagar

Through out the rule of Vijayanagar, there were a host of foreign travelers who visited Vijayanagar, like Necolo Conti, Abdur Razaak, Domingo Paes, Edvardo Barbara, Fernando Nuriz, etc. These travelers give a glorius account of the socio-economic & cultural life of Vijayanagar.

Nicolo Conti an Italian traveler visited Vijayanagar during the rule of Devaraya I. He speaks of the city of Vijayanagar with palaces, water channels, gateways & irrifated lands. He speaks of Polygamy & Sati practiced. He says that Ugadi, Deepavali & Mahanavami were celebarated with po,p & splendour.

Abdur Razak was a Persian ambassador who visited the court of Devaraya II. His book ‘The History of Persia’, throws light on Vijayanagar Abdur Razaak says that ‘the pupil of the eye has never seen a place like it & the ear of intelligence has never been informed that there existed anything to equal”, this city in the world. He says that the king’s throne was made of Gold & precious stones. He also speaks of the Celebration of Mahanavami festival. He mentions about the functioning of Diwan Khana i.e, the Secretariat of Vijayanagar.

Athansivs Niketin was a Russian traveler. He visited Vijayanagar during the rule of Sangama king. He gives an account of Vijayanagar military, which had one lakh foot soliders & 50000 horses. He also speaks of wars between Vijayanagar & Bahamani Sultans.

Edwardo Barbara, a Portuguese traveler visited Vijayanagar during the rule of krishnadevaraya. He says that the city of Vijayanagar was large & rich. According to him iron, spices & drugs; were the main exports & horses & pearls the main imports. He says the capital was a centre of world trade & men from every continent were found.

Domingo paes a Portuguese traveler visited Vijayanagar during the rule of Emperor Krishnadevaraya. He calls Krishnadevaraya a great king & a man of much justice. He claims Vijayanagar to be as large as Rome. He says the city was overflowing with rubies, diamonds, emeralds & pearls. He also gives a description of feasts, rituals & ceremonies.






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