Information World


You might be interested in:


Hyder Ali (1761-1782):- Hyder Ali was born at a place called Budhikote in Kolar district. After initial difficulties Hyder Ali entered services of Mysore as a soldier in the late 1740’s during the rule of king Krishna Raja Wodeyar II under the Dalavayi Nanjarajaiah. Hyder took advantage of the opportunities that came his way and rose step by step to become the ruler of Mysore. In 1747 Hyder Ali took part in the military campaign against Devanahalli under Dalavaji Nanjarajaiah. The campaign was a success in which Hyder Ali fought with exemplary military courage. The Dalavayi was very much impressed and immediately promoted Hyder Ali to the rank of commander of contingent. In 1750 when Dalavaji Nanjarajaiah sent Hyder Ali to Hyderabad to help the cause of Nazir Jung for the throne of the Hyderabad Hyder Ali return to Mysore loaded with wealth on the death of Nazir Jung. In 1751 Hyder Ali rose into limelight after the Trichnopoly campaign Hyder Ali was appointed as the faujder of Dindigal. As a faujder Hyder Ali imparted European training to his army

In 1758 Hyder Ali defeated Marathas and took back Bangalore which was pledged earlier by Krishna raja Wodeyar II. As he was unable to pay the yearly tributes to the Marathas. Krishna Raja Wodeyar 11 thus honoared Hyder by bestowing upon him the title of "Nawab Hyder Ali Khan Bahadur" A few years later when Mysore was struck by a severe financial crisis Hyder Ali solved the crisis by paying the salary to the soldiers from his own packet the stolen money of Nazir Jang and misappropriated revenues of Dindigal came in handy. Following this event Dalavaji Nanjarajaiah retired. From now Hyder Ali relegated the wodeyar tobackground Hyder Ali became the Central figure, the entire administration revolving around him. However Hyder Ali called himself as a "mere u Karyakartha of Mysore" the servant Mysore

Hyder Ali extended the kingdom by conquering Sira and principalities of Guthi, Keladi and Savanur. Thus for the fist time the kingdom extended beyond Tungabhadra up to Dharwad in the North. Large parts Kerala also come under the Mysore kingdom. Chitradurga was also captured.

Anglo Mysore Wars (1767-1799)

First Anglo Mysore War (1767-1769)

Hyder Ali expansionist policy brought him into conflict with the British who had established themselves in the Tamil region. In order to suppress Hyder Ali the British entered into an Alliance with the Marathas and the Nizam. However an eve of war Hyder Ali wooed, the Marathas and the Nizam to his side. Under Hyder Ali the Mysore army ran up to the gates of Madras inflicting severe defeat upon the British and Madras was captured by Hyder Ali. The British who are unable to resist the attacks of Hyder called for peace. According to the treaty of Madras which was dictated by Hyder Ali to the British the First Anglo Mysore War came an end. Its provisions were

1.    Mutual surrendering of the territories conquered
2.    Mutual military help in case of attack by a third party.

Second Anglo Mysore (1780-1784)

As per the treaty of Madras the British failed to help Hyder when Marathas attacked the Mysore in 1771. In 1780 the British raided the French ports of Pondicherry and Mahe through which Hyder imported arms and ammunitions. These were the two factors which led to the Second Anglo Mysore.

As soon as the war began Hyder Ali force erupted like a volcano and murdered the British forces and captured places like Porto Novo, Kanchipuram and Arcot. The British who were defeated for the Seconds time summoned their most efficient General Sir Eye Coote who turned the tables against Hyder. In the battles of Porto Nova and Solingur Hyder was defeated. During the course of war Hyder Ali died of an incurable disease. The war was continued by his son Tippu who defeated the Britishs captured Bidanur. The British who were war exhausted sued for peace. Accordingly the treaty of Mangalore was signed.

The treaty call for:-
1.    The mutual surrendering of the territories conquered
2.    Exchanging prisoners of war

(Hyder conclusions):-

Hyder Ali was a born soldier, a self made man and a man of indomitable will and un-restrained energy. From a mere soldier he rose to the position of the ruler of Mysore. Though unlettered Hyder was a statesman. a good administrator and diplomat when he died he left behind the kingdom extended to an area of 80,000 sq miles yielding a revenue of 43 lakhs of pagoda Hyder maintained a well organized army which was trained on European lines. He constructed palaces-the Daria Daulat at Sri Rangapatna and a palace at Bangalore. It was he who laid the Lal Bagh Gardens both at Sri Rangapatna and Bangalore.

Tippu Sultan {1782-1799}

(Explain the achievement of Tippu Sultan)

Tippu Sultan was born at a place called Devanahalli in 1753 10th Nov. Though Hyder was an illiterate he provided his son Tippu Sultan a second education. Thus Tippu Sultan was well learned. He was also well trained in the field of horse riding and sword fighting. Even as a boy he accompanied his father on military campaigns and thus was well trained in the field of war fare.

Tippu Sultan took part in the First Anglo Mysore War. On the death of his father Hyder, Tippu Sultan continued the Second Anglo Mysore War and even defeated the British in the Battle of Wandiwash, Bidanur was captured by him. As the British called for peace Tippu Sultan signed the treaty of Mangalore in 1784 which brought the Second Anglo Mysore War to an end. The treaty called for Mutual restitution of territories conquered and changing of prisoners of war. After the Second Anglo Mysore War Tippu Sultan signed a treaty with the Marathas according to which he surrendered the regions of Nargund and Badami to the Marathas Tippu Sultan even captured Kodagu.

Third Anglo Mysore War (1790-1792)

Tippu Sultan attack on the Raja of Travancore and British coming to the rescuer of the Raja as he was an ally of the British led to the Third Anglo Mysore War, Lord Cornwallis who was the Governor General of India in the early 1790's wanted to established a British empire in India and thus Tippu in the south was a hindrance. The First phase of the war was indecisive hence Lord Cornwallis himself led the British force, the combined armies of the British the Nizam and

Marathas attacked, Tippu unable to fight the combined armies faced a humiliating defeat. The British imposed on Tippu the humiliating treaty of Sri Rangapatna which brought the Third Anglo Mysore War to an end. It provisions were

1.    Tippu had to surrender half of his kingdom to the British
2.    He had to pay a huge war indemnity of Rs-3 million pounds
3.    He had to surrender two of his sons a hostage to the British

Fourth Anglo Mysore War (1779)

The humiliating defeat suffered by Tippu in the Third Anglo Mysore War which was followed of the humiliating treaty of Sri Rangapatna rankled in the minds of Tippu and made him all the mere determined to drive out the British. With this end in view, Tippu sent embassies to the foreign countries to France, Turkey, Mauritius and Afghanistan. He even planted the tree of liberty at Sri Rangapatna, so as to liberate Mysore from the British. 

The main cause of the Fourth Anglo Mysore War was Tippu’s refusal to sign the Subsidiary alliance devised by Lord Wellesley. The British contingent led by from Madras and Bombay attacked Sri Rangapatna. They were joined by the Marathas and the Nizam. Tippu was defeated in the Battle of Malavali following which the British bombarded the unbreakable fort of Sri Rangapatna. Tippu fought tooth & nail and single handedly killed several British soldiers. But ultimately the British shot him dead. Thus died the Tiger of Mysore sacrificing his life for the Mysore until his last breath.

The British who were thus victorious in the Fourth Anglo Mysore War captured Mysore and divided it into 4 parts one each was given to the Marathas and the Nizam for their help in the Third and Fourth Anglo Mysore War, the Third part was taken by the British and Fourth part returned to the Wodeyar   thus Krishna Raja Wodeyar III was restored to the throne of Mysore.

Tippu Administration:-

Tippu was not only brave warrior but an equally good administrator. He divided his kingdom into 37 provinces called as Asofis each of which was administered by a provisional Governor called as of the provinces were further divided into Taluks called Amils which functioned under a taluk officials called Amildar the lowest administrative unit was a village called Simpt administrated by a headman called Patel. The kingdom of the Tippu comprised an area of 62000 square miles. Tippu introduced 6  department which looked after different branches of administration, Land Revenue, military, commerce, marine, ordinance, treasury thus  ministries was helped by the advisers and officials. Tippu established an efficient and highly disciplined army which comprised of cavalry, elephantry, and infantry. There was also navy Mangalore was Tippu’s Naval headquarters steps were taken for the development of agriculture by construction irrigational project, fallow land was brought under cultivation by being made free of revenue payment for the  1st year and by advancing Taccavi (Agriculture Loans)

Tippu introduced postal system for royal correspondence. For the 1st time the department of census was opened. A new system of weights and measures and currencies came into existence. Coins were called by different names Hyderi, Inami, Osmani, Tippu also replaced Kannada with Persian as the administrative language.

The most important aspect in the Tippu administration was the establishment of state monopoly. Trade and Commerce became the exclusive prerogative of the state. Trading centers was established abroad. Karachi, Muscot some industries were also brought under state control. The benefits from these were accrued by the state.






Subscribe to Our Newsletter